Mental health continues to become more recognized as a factor heavily influencing physical health and essential to well-being. While mental health is relevant at every age, older adults face a set of collective challenges to their mental health warrant an age-specific approach to their care.
One in four older adults experiences some form of mental health condition, like depression or anxiety. On top of that, two-thirds of seniors with mental health conditions do not receive appropriate treatment, and those over the age of 85 have the highest suicide rate of any age group.
Helping your loved one to pursue resources to preserve or restore their mental health is important, and understanding the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist is a great place to start.
What Is a Psychologist?
Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and human behavior. It explores how areas of consciousness, feelings, and emotions, influence habits, relationships, and motivations.
Psychologists work both in and outside of healthcare settings doing research, or they may practice in a clinical setting such as a private practice, a mental health clinic, a psychiatric hospital, or a rehabilitation programs. In healthcare settings, psychologists are often referred to as therapists, and they focus on helping patients address and overcome challenges associated with their mental illness.
Psychological counseling can help individuals deal with trauma or cope with the diagnosis of a mental health condition like major depression, generalized anxiety, social anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, and many more. Therapists explore how one’s subconscious and unique set of lived experiences influence their reactions to specific environmental triggers.
What Is a Psychiatrist?
Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that is focused on diagnosing and treating mental health disorders. Psychiatrists are medical doctors (M.D.s or D.O.s) who specialize in mental health or substance abuse disorders.
These practitioners are qualified to assess both the mental and the physical aspects of emotional health that may be affecting an individual. Often, psychiatrists work with patients who may have mental health disorders with symptoms that severely impact their day-to-day life like schizophrenia or panic disorder.
Psychiatrists are able to use psychotherapy as a therapeutic treatment, but they are also able to prescribe medications to bring relief.
Differences Between Psychology and Psychiatry
Both psychologists and psychiatrists are concerned with improving the mental, emotional, and physical well-being of their clients. However, there are some key differences between them.
The main difference between the two is that psychiatrists are medical doctors who are able to prescribe medication. However, most psychologists are not medical doctors, and so are unable to prescribe medicine. With that said, both psychologists and psychiatrists are able to provide therapy as a treatment method.
A psychologist will likely refer a patient to a psychiatrist if they are exhibiting signs of a mental illness that may benefit from medication. Likewise, psychiatrists may refer patients to a psychologist for focused talk therapy.
It should be noted that five states do allow medically trained psychologists to prescribe medication: New Mexico, Illinois, Louisiana, Iowa, and Idaho.
Psychologists in those states may complete additional required training in order to obtain the right to prescribe.
Education and Training
Psychologists have completed a master’s or doctorate level of education involving hundreds of hours of shadowing. Many states also require a practicing therapist to complete a fellowship in order to obtain supervised experience before actually gaining their license and being able to treat their own clients. The process usually takes anywhere between eight to ten years, on average.
Following medical school, psychiatrists must complete a four-year residency before being able to seek licensure. The process to become a psychiatrist is about 12 years in total.
While psychiatrists spend more time in school, it doesn’t necessarily mean that they are better equipped to handle a mental illness as opposed to a psychologist. They are just trained in a different way and are able to offer different treatment methods.
Generally, psychologists treat mental health disorders through psychotherapy and behavioral interventions — this may include talk therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and more.
Psychiatrists, on the other hand, generally use a combination of therapy and medication to help their patients. They can also choose to go with one or the other, but a combination of both is generally proven to be more effective.
Psychologists and psychiatrists may work hand in hand on the same patient. While a psychiatrist may handle administering and monitoring medication for a patient, a psychologist can keep regular therapy appointments with them to see how the medication and/or other coping methods may be benefitting or worsening their behavior and mood.
Should I See a Psychologist or Psychiatrist?
If your loved one is exhibiting symptoms of a mental health disorder, you likely want to try to get them help as soon as possible.
As a rule of thumb, many people tend to start with a psychologist first, as they may determine the symptoms may be managed with talk therapy alone.
However, they may refer you and your loved one to a psychiatrist if they feel that medication may also help. You can even ask a primary care physician for a psychiatric referral if you want to start with medication as you look for a therapist.
Signs of Mental Illness in Older Adults
While mental illness is common, it is not considered to be a normal process of aging and definitely requires attention and treatment. Keep an eye out for some of the common warning signs that might alert you to a possible mental health condition in your loved one:
- Noticeable changes in mood or energy level
- Insomnia (not sleeping) or sleeping too much
- Increased agitation
- Difficulty concentrating
- Physical signs of stress, like sweating, fidgeting, or heart palpitations
- A need for alcohol or other drugs
- Engagement in high-risk activities
- Increased prevalence of wandering
- A lack of enthusiasm for previously enjoyable activities
Mental health looks different for everyone. If you feel like your loved one is not acting like themselves, it never hurts to try to get them to see a professional.
Benefits of Psychiatry for Elderly Individuals
A specialized field of psychiatry known as geriatric psychiatry focuses on the obstacles to mental health that are emphasized with age. Physical illness and pain, inability to engage in previous activities, death of friends, and feelings of isolation are all prominent stressors for elderly individuals. Geriatric psychiatrists have additional training for understanding some of the challenges specific to seniors and in evaluating the presence of underlying progressive diseases such as Alzehimer’s or dementia, which can contribute to changes in mood in behavior.
Getting your loved one assistance for their mental health can greatly improve their quality of life – and yours. The emotional outlet that a psychiatrist (or psychologist) can offer your loved one may relieve their previous dependence on you for emotional support, improving their own symptoms and minimizing their condition’s toll on caregivers.
If your loved one is already on a lot of medications, and you’re worried that even more might have adverse effects, a psychiatrist can be helpful here, too. They can assess the other medications that your loved one is taking, and can coordinate care with other physicians to consider more closely which medications are needed, which may need to be swapped out to minimize side effects, and if dose changes are indicated.
Therapy and Psychiatry for Caregivers
Taking care of a loved one struggling with dementia or other signs of aging can be a full-time job. While it comes with its share of rewarding experiences, it can also be stressful and frustrating. Preventing caregiver burnout is equally essential as keeping your loved one’s mental wellbeing in good shape.
Caregiving counseling allows you to take advantage of mental health services to cope with your feelings while also implementing healthier coping behaviors when stressors arise. Not only can investing in your own mental health make you a more patient caregiver, it may even lower the stress your loved one experiences.
Seeing a professional counselor can also allow you and your loved one to develop a deeper connection. Sessions may include both of your participation, and it may allow you and your family member to address concerns and come up with new ways to go about them.
Lightyear Health is proud to offer a caregiver wellness program to support the wonderful family and friends who seek support during even the most challenging times. If you’re interested, get in touch with us. We’re here for you, and your loved one, every step of the way.
Psychology and psychiatry are very much related, though there are some key differences that are necessary to know:
- Psychology is the study of the human mind and behavior, whereas psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on treating mental disorders.
- Psychologists and psychiatrists both need bachelor’s degrees, but only psychiatrists require medical school, which equips them to prescribe medication.
- While both are able to administer talk therapy as a treatment method, psychologists typically focus more on emotional and behavioral interventions and psychiatrists focus more on pharmacologic interventions.
Both fields may add tremendous value to the care of your loved one. Since older adults are at a high risk of depression and anxiety, it’s important that they get the help they need.
Lightyear Health is relentlessly committed to improving the experience of aging. From behavioral health to medical rehabilitation, we’re committed to providing high-quality care to your loved ones in skilled nursing or assisted living facilities.
What Does a Geriatric Doctor Do?Geriatric doctors cover a lot of bases when caring for your loved one. In many ways, the job of a geriatrician is more difficult than the job of a family medicine doctor. This is because older bodies respond to treatment differently. Additionally, cognitive disorders like dementia can make it hard for your loved one to properly communicate their pain or discomfort to them. But, geriatricians are trained to provide the highest quality care to your senior family members. Here are a few of the things they can do.
Focus on Senior-Specific ConditionsFamily doctors definitely know a thing or two about things like dementia, incontinence, or delirium, but they don’t have a firm grasp on how this can affect seniors specifically. One of the best things about a geriatric doctor is that they more thoroughly understand different issues that predominantly affect the senior population. These are often called “geriatric syndromes.” Geriatric doctors often better understand how each of these conditions can play off of one another as well. For example, they understand that conditions like muscle weakness can put elderly individuals at a susceptibility for falls. With that in mind, they can craft better treatment plans or preventative measures that are more in-line with your loved one’s needs.
Long-Term PlanningWhen you see a family doctor for a cold or flu, it’s usually a one-and-done appointment. They might prescribe you some medications and give you guidelines for the near future, but you likely won’t need to go back to see them again unless the problems persist. With geriatric care, there is a greater focus on quality of life and patient goals. This means that your loved one will spend more time at each appointment to ensure that their needs are met. This might include discussing priorities for healthcare if multiple conditions are affecting quality of life, creating and managing care plans, reviewing the use of all medications, and coordinating care with other health providers. They may also spend some time discussing the potential need for in-home or inpatient care facilities with you and your loved one.
Preventative CareA large part of geriatric healthcare is preventing problems from arising in the first place. Typically, this involves fall prevention, though it might encompass other facets such as nutrition or exercise regimens to help prevent heart disease, increase in weight, or other conditions.
How Do Seniors Benefit?Geriatric doctors are highly beneficial for your loved one in multiple ways, especially if your loved one struggles with dementia.
Fewer MisdiagnosesAs seniors grow older, their cognitive function naturally declines. For individuals with dementia, it can make it even more difficult to communicate effectively through verbal language alone. This makes it very hard for family doctors to assess the underlying cause and severity of their discomfort. Because of these factors, seniors are misdiagnosed more often than younger people. Geriatric doctors have special training in better understanding individuals with dementia. They are better equipped to help uncover the hidden meaning behind certain words, actions, or emotions to pinpoint the underlying cause of discomfort, even if these individuals can’t fully convey their thoughts. With help from you, geriatric doctors can give your loved one more appropriate care for their conditions and needs.
Help for Multiple ConditionsFamily doctors are usually great at addressing singular issues in younger patients. But elderly adults often have multiple ailments at a single time. Geriatricians are trained to better treat individuals with many medical conditions that all need to be addressed simultaneously. This can mean fewer doctor visits for your loved one — one trip to the doctor might be enough to talk about arthritis pain, functional challenges, and mental health. Not to mention, geriatricians can help your loved one manage multiple medications at once. Some medications may interfere with one another and cause adverse effects, and without familiarity of these interactions between common geriatric medications, it may be impossible to figure out which one is the problem. Geriatric doctors can help with medication management to help avoid the risks of polypharmacy.
Better Quality of LifeAll of this culminates into the most important benefit — geriatricians will help improve your loved one’s quality of life. Having someone who is trained to provide specialized care for your family member will help them feel understood and cared for in a way that traditional family doctors may not be able to match. When your loved one is happy, so are you. Geriatricians are concerned about the caregiver’s happiness just as much as the patient. They will take some extra time to make sure you understand the implications of your loved one’s needs as well as how you can care for them when doctors are not around.
Geriatric PsychiatryGeriatric doctors don’t just work to improve the physical health of your loved one. There are some geriatric doctors who specialize in mental health care. They are often referred to as geriatric psychiatrists. Mental health can be affected just as severely by age as physical health. In fact, at least one in four older adults experience some form of mental health condition. Many primary care physicians focus on physical health but overlook the mental aspects that may also be affecting your loved one’s quality of life. Geriatric psychiatrists understand how chronic disease and aging can affect the mental wellness of senior populations. Their care focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and treating emotional and mental health conditions in senior patients. If your loved one has dementia, it is likely that they also experience a co-occurring mental health condition such as depression or anxiety. Depression and anxiety are common with aging, so getting them addressed as soon as possible is essential. Additionally, physical pain and discomfort can be a large contributor to mental unwellness. Often, if physical health can be addressed, mental health can be improved alongside it. This is why it is essential for geriatric doctors to work together to create the most holistic care plan possible. Geriatric psychiatrists can help treat behavioral health conditions through a number of means. Primarily, medications are effective ways to alleviate symptoms associated with many mental health conditions. However, talk therapy may also be useful if your loved one is able to properly communicate with verbal language.
In ConclusionGeriatric doctors specialize in addressing the health concerns and improving the quality of life for individuals over the age of 65. Here are the key things to know about geriatric doctors:
- Geriatric doctors are family doctors with an extra one or two years of specialized training in senior-specific conditions.
- They help with long-term planning, preventative care, and focus on conditions that are often unique to older populations.
- Seniors benefit from geriatricians because they can help with multiple conditions at once, better understand seniors to avoid misdiagnosis, and lead to overall improvements in quality of life.
- Some geriatric doctors focus on mental health. Geriatric psychiatrists are just as important as doctors that address physical concerns.